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United States Constitution

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The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America.[1] The Constitution originally consisted of seven Articles. The first three Articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislature, consisting of the bicameral Congress; the executive, consisting of the President; and the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court and other federal courts. The fourth and sixth Articles frame the doctrine of federalism, describing the relationship between State and State, and between the several States and the federal government. The fifth Article provides the procedure for amending the Constitution. The seventh Article provides the procedure for ratifying the Constitution.

 

Bill of Rights 

The National Archives displays the Bill of Rights as one of the three “Charters of Freedom”. The original intent of these first ten Amendments was to restrict Congress from abusing its power. For example, the First Amendment – “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion” – was ratified by the states before all states had, of their own accord, disestablished their official churches.

The Federalist Papers argued that amendments were not necessary to adopt the Constitution. But without the promise in their ratification conventions, Massachusetts, Virginia and New York could not have joined the Union as early as 1789. James Madison, true to his word, managed the proposed amendments through the new House of Representatives in its first session. The amendments that became the Bill of Rights were ten proposals of the twelve that Congress sent out to the states in 1789.

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New America Vs. Great Britain

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images (2)The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, but gradually grew into a world war between Britain on one side and the newly formed United States, France, Netherlands, Spain, and Mysore on the other. The main result was an American victory and European recognition of the independence of the United States, with mixed results for the other powers. The war was the result of the political American Revolution.

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  In London, as political support for the war plummeted after Yorktown, British    Prime Minister Lord North resigned in March 1782. In April 1782, the Commons voted to end the war in America. Preliminary peace articles were signed in Paris at the end of November, 1782; the formal end of the war did not occur until the Treaty of Paris (for the U.S.) and theTreaties of Versailles (for the other Allies) were signed on September 3, 1783. The last British troops left New York City on November 25, 1783, and the United States Congress of the Confederation ratified the Paris treaty on January 14, 1784.

Britain negotiated the Paris peace treaty without consulting her Native American allies and ceded all Native American territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River to the United States. Full of resentment, Native Americans reluctantly confirmed these land cessions with the United States in a series of treaties, but the fighting would be renewed in conflicts along the frontier in the coming years, the largest being the Northwest Indian War. The British would continue to support the Indians against the new American nation especially when hostilities resumed 29 years later in the War of 1812.

As a result of this war, the thirteen colonies were free to create a new government with their own flag, map and a constituion.

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       Here there are some videos about the colonization

 war

United States Declaration of Independence

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The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they now formed a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2. Acommittee had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when congress voted on independence.

Reasons for American Revolution:

The colonists had to pay taxes to the British who needed them to support their army defending British colonies against the French,

Spanish and Native Americans. This led to general discontent of the colonists and aroused their desire for independence. All the colonists wanted was for British not to be in control so the colonist held a town meeting refusing/resigning to buy any imported goods soon the revolutionary war began and they fought over laws, taxes, the tea act, and independence.

The British passed the so called Navigational Acts that said that the colonists should trade only with Britain. Sugar Act making colonists pay tax on sugar and Stamp Act putting tax on newspapers and official documents (later removed). The 13 colonies wanted to decide on their tax matters and not as it was the Parliament (a famous slogan: no taxation without representation). The Townshend Act taxed only imported goods. On the 5 March 1770 there was a riot in Boston during which British soldiers shot dead five five people’s incident known as Boston Massacre. Another incident, also in Boston–Boston Tea Party–throwing out the tea brought by British ships into the harbor after passing the Tea Act giving a British company the right to sell tea to the colonists.
In 1773 the Tea Act was passed. The Tea Act not only put a three penny per pound tax on tea but it also gave the British East India Company a near monopoly because it allowed the company to sell directly to the colonial agents avoiding any middlemen. In Boston the colonists held a town meeting to try to get their Tea Agents to resign. The Tea Agents would not resign anda few months later angered Bostonians dressed as Indians boarded three tea ships and dumped it all into Boston Harbor. This was also a leading cause in the war for independence because the colonists first acted out against the Crown. This infuriated the crown because one of its biggest money makers were going down hill and this was the only source of income.

1- Taxation with out representation

2- Freedom from religious oppression

3-Free capitalism

4- Individual rights

5- Individual liberty

6- The right to own property.

7- Sepreation from a totalitarian state.

8- General enlightenment that men are rational beings and basically good, especially with out big government butting into their lives.

9- The philosophy that men are created equal and that royalty is an evil lie. God had not appointed royalty to rule because they are not special they are just rich by forcing others to pay them. In other words, all men are equal to royalty and each other

Colonization

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The strip of land along the eastern seacoast was settled primarily by English colonists in the 17th century.By a British policy of benign neglect  that permitted the development of an American spirit distinct from that of its European founders. Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants.

The first successful English colony wasestablishedin 1607, on the James River at Jamestownwhich began the American Fontanier. It languished imagen 2for decades until a new wave of settlers arrived in the late 17th century and established commercial agriculture based on tobacco. Between the late 1610s and the Revolution, the British shipped an estimated 50,000 convicts to their American colonies. A severe instance of conflict was the 1622 uprising in Virginia, in which Native Americans killed hundreds of English settlers.

The colonies were characterized by religious diversity, with many Congregationalists in New England, German and Dutch Reformed in the Middle Colonies, Catholics in Maryland, and Scotch Irish Presbyterians on the frontier. Many royal officials and merchants were Anglicans.

mapasEach of the 13 American colonies had a slightly different governmental structure. Typically a colony was ruled by a governor appointed from London who controlled the executive administration and relied upon a locally elected legislature to vote taxes and make laws. By the 18th century, the American colonies were growing very rapidly because of ample supplies of land and food, and low death rates. They were richer than most parts of Britain, and attracted a steady flow of immigrants, especially teenagers who came as indentured servants. The tobacco and rice plantations imported black slaves from the British colonies in the West Indies, and by the 1770s they comprised a fifth of the American population. The question of independence from Britain did not arise as long as the colonies needed British military support against French and Spanish power; those threats were gone by 1765. London regarded the American colonies as existing merely for the benefit of the mother country, a policy known as mercantilism.

Here we let you some videos about the colonization

Ages before English’s Colonization

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Four groups of people settled and colonized the land that became the United States of America. The first were Asian nomads, who later became known as “Native Americans” or “American Indians.” Thousands of years later, they were followed by the Europeans: first the Spanish, then the French, and finally the British.

 

 

Native American tribes eventually settled all parts of North and South America, including the islands that could support human habitation.





Their cultures were diverse, but in some important ways they were all alike. Common elements of American-Indian culture included respect for the land, making what was needed by hand, hunting and gathering food, and maintaining an oral rather than a written culture.

 

Native Americans were developing virgin areas while European Empires were fighting between each other and their populations suffered of several diseases. Natives didn’t notice what was happening all over the world and the evil of the European people.